Group: E300–E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators)
Calcium dihydrogen phosphate is used in the food industry as a leavening agent, i.e., to cause baked goods to rise. Because it is acidic, when combined with an alkali ingredient, commonly sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or potassium bicarbonate, it reacts to produce carbon dioxide and a salt. Outward pressure of the carbon dioxide gas causes the rising effect. When combined in a ready-made baking powder, the acid and alkali ingredients are included in the right proportions such that they will exactly neutralize each other and not significantly affect the overall pH of the product. AMCP and MCP are fast acting, releasing most carbon dioxide within minutes of mixing. It is popularly used in pancake mixes. In double acting baking powders, MCP is often combined with the slow acting acid sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP).
Dicalcium phosphate is used as a food additive, it is found in some toothpastes as a polishing agent and is a biomaterial.
Tricalcium phosphate is used in powdered spices as an anticaking agent, e.g. to prevent table salt from caking. The calcium phosphates have been assigned European food additive number E341.
It is also found in baby powder and toothpaste.